Don’t pay any money for a “free” government grant. If you have to pay money to claim a “free” government grant, it isn’t really free. A real government agency won’t ask you to pay a processing fee for a grant that you have already been awarded — or to pay for a list of grant-making institutions. The names of agencies and foundations that award grants are available for free at any public library or on the Internet. The only official access point for all federal grant-making agencies is www.grants.gov. Federal Grant Location
Some scam artists advertise “free grants” in the classifieds, inviting readers to call a toll-free number for more information. Others are more bold: they call you out of the blue. They lie about where they’re calling from, or they claim legitimacy using an official-sounding name like the “Federal Grants Administration.” They may ask you some basic questions to determine if you “qualify” to receive a grant. FTC attorneys say calls and come-ons for free money invariably are rip offs. Federal Grant Writing Training

I know what you’re thinking: it would be crazy. Either it would be a fast track to crippling inflation or it’s some Republican satire of an ultra-liberal government handout program. But it is not quite as radical as it sounds. The key idea behind such a program has a longstanding, bipartisan economic pedigree. John Stuart Mill argued in 1829 that mass unemployment was caused by “a deficiency of the circulating medium” relative to other commodities. John Maynard Keynes used the idea in his 1936 book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, to lampoon the inherent silliness of gold mining, suggesting that old coal mines could be filled up with bottles full of banknotes, buried over with trash, then left “to private enterprise on well-tried principles of laissez-faire to dig the notes up again.” Milton Friedman suggested that monetary policy could never fail to cure mass unemployment, because as a last resort the central bank could just drop cash out of helicopters—an enticing analogy that former Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke borrowed in a 2002 speech, earning himself the persistent nickname of “Helicopter Ben.” Free Money Images
Grants for college students fall across two broad categories, depending on what eligibility requirements are attached to the funds.  Need-based grants are issued to students exhibiting the greatest levels of financial hardship in paying for college. On the other hand, merit-based grants are tied to performance-like good grades and other personal achievements. Free Money Reader App
Krugman is right that helicopter money isn’t fundamentally innovative economically. The argument here, however, is not economic; it’s institutional. Instead of Congress being in charge of distributing resources according to its erratic whims and halting ability to compromise, the Fed would do it. The Fed would watch aggregate demand closely (indeed, it already does this) and make quick, proactive decisions on whether to send everyone money, and how much, without having to wait for Congress to deliberate over a stimulus bill. Free Money Reward Apps
Anyway, the train heist is merely a minor plot point, so I'm guessing that maybe that's why the movie bombed. Audiences were probably expecting a heist story with a solid, formula plot (probably along the scale of "Oceans Twelve"), and I'm guessing they felt extremely uncomfortable with the film's humble speed. The big-name cast also probably didn't help, because the film has a real 'Canadian provincial' feel to it (Hollywood, this film is not!). Nevertheless, the entire cast is fantastic; particularly Thomas Haden Church who I never would have guessed was the same guy in "Sideways"! Perhaps I'm just nuts, but I think this is a sleeper gem that has yet to find its true audience. Federal Grant And Cooperative Agreement
Additionally, you’ll earn an unlimited 1.5% cash back on all purchases. You can also take advantage of the introductory 0% APR offer on purchases and balance transfers made for the first 15 months. (Please note: There is a balance transfer fee of 5% of the total you transfer ($5 minimum), and balance transfers do not count toward earning your bonus.) Cash back rewards don’t expire as long as your account stays open, there is no annual fee, and you’ll also receive a free credit score that’s updated weekly.
To anyone reading, this site is really indeed legit (not scam site), at first I myself also thought that this site is just another time wasting scam site that does not pay you anything once you have enough points for prize, but after 1 to 2 months of earning 3000+ points and claiming my paypal prize payment, I really did receive my $20 USD paypal money, but of course you need to earn until you have at least 3000 points to claim a $20 USD paypal prize. I will state the pros and cons below, and also tips at the very end below. Pros: -Legit site that really pays you once you have enough points for it -Many options of prizes to choose from, ranging from gift cards (e.g. steam wallet card) to paypal money -For new accounts, you can earn until 600 points from coupon code, by typing in the coupon code for free, you can find the coupon code by using google to find it (this means you won't be able to earn any more points from coupon code anymore once you reached 600 points), so you only need to earn 2400 more points to redeem a $20 USD paypal prize or other prizes that cost 3000 points to redeem Cons: -If you do not live in wealthy countries (e.g. United States), it can take a bit longer to earn points because there will be less surveys to do and you will be disqualified more often too -Minimum threshold of $20 USD paypal payout -Requires at least 3000 points to claim any prize, e.g. $20 USD paypal money prize, e.g. $20 USD steam wallet cards -Support response through the website is extremely slow , if you encounter any problem and need help, I suggest asking for help directly on PointsPrizes discord at #support channel instead -Most free offers do not work at all, you don't get paid even after finishing it, surveys and games (games have limit of points you can earn from) are the only free offers guaranteed to earn you points if you qualify for it and finish it. There are paid offers which earn a lot of points but what's the point of it if it is not free to do it -Sometimes, you don't get your points even after you qualified for a survey and finished it (if you do the surveys on PointsPrizes website). I recommend doing the surveys in PointsPrizes mobile app instead (guaranteed points once you qualified and finished a survey) -It can take many days before you receive your prize (paypal) after you claimed it, I claimed my paypal prize payment on 19 September 2018 and received my paypal money on 4 October 2018 (that's 15 days before I received my paypal money after claiming it) Simple tips on how to earn points easily and fast: My tips to earn points as easy and as fast as possible (for people not living in wealthy countries e.g. USA, people living in wealthy countries can do it too but it is more helpful for those not anyways): 1. Download PointsPrizes mobile app (android or iphone). 2. Watch ads in the mobile app (there is limit on the amount of points you can earn from ads every 24 hours though, from what i know, 100 points maximum from ads, and this limit increases as you have more points earned, say, 2000 points or more. 3. Do surveys in the mobile app (you might be disqualified often, but just keep doing survey until you qualify for a survey and then finish it (You are guaranteed to receive your points once you qualified and finished it in the mobile app). Federal Grant Compliance
The third policy option is known as nominal gross domestic product targeting, the major proponent of which is the economist Scott Sumner. The idea is all about self-fulfilling expectations. Recall that the central bank owns the printing press, so it can create arbitrary quantities of dollars. By making a pre-commitment to keep the economy on a particular spending trajectory, self-fulfilling collapses in spending would not happen. Something similar to this policy seems to have kept Australia and Israel out of the Great Recession. But in order to sustain such a policy, the Fed might have to intervene in the economy quite frequently, and then the distributional consequences could be serious. Quantitative easing, for example, helps push up asset prices (the stock market has regained all the ground lost since 2009 and then some), which disproportionately benefits the wealthy. Federal Grant Subsidized Loan

There are also several grants that are geared more towards specific locales or communities. A Block Grant is generally comprised of smaller, categorical grants, and is therefore a larger grant that is given to recipients to use as they see fit. Block grants are formula grants, and are often distributed to state or local governments for large-scale community projects and maintenance. Formula Grants distribute funds as predefined by the law. A formula grant is determined by pre-existing factors such as population, poverty level, taxes, or even housing density, and where a community or potential recipient falls on this formulaic spectrum indicates the amount of funds they are qualified to receive.
Right now, Congress has the power to directly spend its way to full employment, but it’s not doing it. And neither are the state governments. In fact, since 2010, Congress and most of the states have been doing the exact opposite, sharply reducing spending. After the Great Depression, it took World War II to break the political deadlock and get Congress to dump money into the economy, but today, nothing similarly jarring is in sight. If the Fed took over, it would respond directly to the needs of the economy, without getting bogged down in endless politically charged debates about the virtues of austerity or the moral peril of government checks (recall how Senate “moderates” forced the Obama stimulus to be too small). Instead, it could respond, quickly and efficiently, to fluctuations in aggregate demand. Federal Grant Bonus
Wish you could make money just by using and checking your phone? This just might be one of the easiest free money apps to use. Slidejoy basically lets you rent out your Android lock screen for cash and gift cards. Here’s how it works: each time you check your phone, you’ll be shown an ad or news story. Then simply swipe left to learn more, slide up to see another promo, or slide right to get to your home screen. CNET says they’ll give you up to $15, which you can redeem on Paypal or donate to one of three charities, which include The Jericho Project, Got Your 6, and Tutor Chat Live. Free Money Making System
Get paid by taking photos of art, cities, food and more with your smartphone and selling them on Depositphotos. Android and iOS users can sell photos for 50 cents to $80, and royalties average 44 percent per sale. Users are required to register an account at Clashot, share a photo with a complete description and a model release and complete a quick verification process to start selling.
I recieved my reward without too much difficulty. Points Prizes in my opinion has the easiest to achieve offers and a wide variety. I only had a problem with customer support, I contacted support for a offer that did not work and was not happy with the help offered as everything i was told was stuff i could find in the faq section and none of my questions were answered very well and kind of just ignored Federal Pell Grant Income Chart
Again, that may sound crazy. But the idea is to address the lack of aggregate demand in the economy in the simplest, most mechanical fashion: if the economy needs more aggregate demand, you give people money to spend, since when people (especially non-rich ones) have more money, they spend more money, and therefore aggregate demand increases. People who don’t spend the money outright might choose instead to pay down debt, leaving them more willing to use credit for future spending, and people who worry that the policy will create inflation will move their money from cash and savings to spending on durable goods. (And, remember, the policy won’t create excessive inflation so long as there is slack in aggregate demand.) Federal Grant University
Why hasn’t the helicopter money option already been enacted? The main reason is simply that until very recently we thought we had cured chronic shortages of aggregate demand, so no one was really thinking about these issues. The other reason is that Congress has not yet gotten it together to pass a law allowing the Fed to cut checks to the American people. Federal Need Grant
Want to know how to make easy money? Taking surveys online as a mystery shopper, potential customer or just an everyday citizen is a time-tested way to earn money. Several sites let you make money taking surveys, but one of the best is Pinecone Research. The firm pays you in points, which you can cash out for $3, $5 or $15 payments depending on the number of points earned. Federal Government Grant In Conjunction With World Bank
Accumulate points called SB by searching the Web, completing surveys, watching videos, referring your friends, shopping in the app’s mall, completing special offers, voting in daily polls, finding swag codes and entering fun contests via social media and the Swagbucks blog. These points can be redeemed for gift cards from stores like Amazon, Target and Walmart or for PayPal cash. At time of writing, Swagbucks has given out $97,751,668 in destributed rewards. Download the app on your iOS or Android device. Free Money For Single Moms
Here we are again – yet another company wants to pay for your opinion. Popular Harris Poll Online doles out cash to consumers willing to share their opinions, ideas, and feelings on a variety of matters from commercials to political campaigns. By signing up, you’ll be able to participate in many of these polls and get free money in the process. Does it get any better than that? Federal Grant Bank
Essentially, a federal grant is an award of money or economic aid provided by the United States Government out of the funds available in the general federal revenue. The money provided can be a loan, a portion of a certain project or organization's cost, or a complete funding of a particular project, research or other undertaking. Grants are available from both the government as well as outside sources, (including foundations, non-profit charities or non-profit corporations), although the government alone offers nearly 1,000 different grant programs to qualified businesses and individuals, distributed by 26 grant-specific agencies, and divided into 21 separate categories.
Our attorneys are well versed in the problems that can arise when federal requirements meet real-world situations. We help clients through pre- and post-award matters, such as financial and program requirements, procurements, property issues, termination and enforcement, as well as how best to prepare for and respond to government reviews, audits, and cost disallowances.
GoodFinancialCents.com has an advertising relationship with some of the offers included on this page. However, the rankings and listings of our reviews, tools and all other content are based on objective analysis. For more information, please check out our full disclaimer. GoodFinancialCents.com strives to keep its information accurate and up to date. The information in our reviews could be different from what you find when visiting a financial institution, service provider or a specific product's website. All products are presented without warranty. Federal Grant Training Classes

Here we are again – yet another company wants to pay for your opinion. Popular Harris Poll Online doles out cash to consumers willing to share their opinions, ideas, and feelings on a variety of matters from commercials to political campaigns. By signing up, you’ll be able to participate in many of these polls and get free money in the process. Does it get any better than that? Federal Grant Bank


2. If you own a car, you can signup to be an uber.com or lyft.com driver. You can work as much or as little as you want to depend on your availability. You need to pass a background check and make sure that you have a clean vehicle without mechanical issues. You are rated by passengers it pays to be professional & courteous to passengers. You may even be offered a bonus when you signup as a driver! Federal Nursing Grant Program


Grants for college students fall across two broad categories, depending on what eligibility requirements are attached to the funds.  Need-based grants are issued to students exhibiting the greatest levels of financial hardship in paying for college. On the other hand, merit-based grants are tied to performance-like good grades and other personal achievements.
The second major policy option, championed by International Monetary Fund economist Olivier Blanchard, is functionally very similar to the negative interest rate proposal, although it’s a little sneakier. Right now, the Fed targets inflation of 2 percent. Raising the target to 4 or 5 percent (assuming it could be achieved) would discourage savings and promote spending in the same way that negative interest rates would, but without the probable outrage at having money subtracted from one’s bank account. Federal Grant Department Of The United States

Why hasn’t the helicopter money option already been enacted? The main reason is simply that until very recently we thought we had cured chronic shortages of aggregate demand, so no one was really thinking about these issues. The other reason is that Congress has not yet gotten it together to pass a law allowing the Fed to cut checks to the American people. Free Money Pubg
You already search the web and watch videos every day, so why not get paid for it? Swagbucks is here to help make that happen! Swagbucks lets you earn points for shopping online, watching entertaining videos, surfing the web, and answering surveys. You can then redeem those points for free gift cards from stores like Walmart and Amazon. Or if you prefer cold, hard cash, you can get cash back from PayPal! As of this article, Swagbucks has doled out about $290 million to users. And if you sign up now, they’ll even give you a $10 bonus! Def one of the coolest free money apps out there. Free Money Government
You will need thorough documentation of the problem your organization will address. No matter what you need the funding to accomplish—funding to help children succeed, funding to help the homeless, funding to help build healthy communities, funding for the arts, etc.—you’ll need lots of facts and figures that show what the situation you are concerned about looks like in your service area, why it is significant, and why it is happening. Start gathering data now and keep it current.
If you have eyes to watch videos, and thumbs to play games, then here’s one of the simplest free money apps on the market. TapCash lets you rack up rewards for – you guessed it! – playing games and watching videos, which you can then redeem for gift cards and PayPal cash. Gift card options include stores such as Amazon, Google Play, Amazon, and more.
There’s lots more you’ll need to learn, and there are many other ways you can begin preparing your nonprofit to get federal funding to support its work in the community. One of the best ways you can learn what you need to know is by attending The Grantsmanship Center’s federal grants training, Competing for Federal Grants. This government grants training workshop is thorough and by participating fully in this federal grants class, you'll boost your competitive edge and be better prepared to find federal funding for your nonprofit. Free Money Management Apps
Filing your FAFSA gets the ball rolling on lots of financial aid opportunities, but additional grants are available that might require separate applications.  Your state and other grant foundations put forth narrowly defined student gift aid every year.  Your location, ethnic background, and even your parents’ employer could lead you to the college grant funding you need. Free Money Florida

PointsPrizes delivered a working Steam wallet code in exchange for 3,000 points that I accumulated over several weeks. Though it took slightly more than a week to process my claim, the important thing is that they kept the promise, so the site is legit. I had a few problems with some external survey sites that kicked me out just before completing a survey after investing like 15 to 20 minutes (happened twice) and about 2 or 3 others that somehow failed to credit despite the survey being completed. But most of the time, it gets properly credited, and eventually you can reach the target if you are persistent enough despite constant survey rejections. The only thing you have to decide is whether you are prepared to invest the amount of time needed (if you rely on surveys). Free Money Jobs


Editorial Disclosure: This content is not provided or commissioned by the bank, credit card issuer, or other advertiser. Opinions expressed here are author's alone, not those of the bank, credit card issuer, or other advertiser, and have not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by the advertiser. This site may be compensated through the bank, credit card issuer, or other advertiser Affiliate Program Federal Government Grant New Year Program
Gateway to information about private funding sources, the grantseeking process, guidelines on writing a grant proposal, addresses of state libraries with grants reference collections, and links to other useful Internet websites. The Center maintains a comprehensive Foundation Directory Online database on foundations; produces print and electronic directories and guides; conducts research and publishes studies in the field; and offers a variety of training and educational seminars. Free Money Grants
Official descriptions of more than 2,200 federal assistance programs (including grants, loans, and other financial and nonfinancial assistance) can be found on beta.SAM.gov. The website, produced by the General Services Administration (GSA), is currently in beta, and it houses federal assistance listings previously found on the now-retired Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA). Each federal assistance program has a corresponding CFDA program number; these CFDA numbers are still used as numerical program identifiers. Programs are searchable at the "Assistance Listings" domain at beta.SAM.gov; descriptions are updated by departments and agencies, and they cover authorizing legislation, objectives, and eligibility and compliance requirements. The site will eventually be renamed beta.SAM.gov. For current notices of funding availability, see Grants.gov or FedConnect. Federal Grant In Kind Match
Your school will notify you if you must repay part of the grant. From that point, you will have 45 days to either pay that portion of the grant back in full or enter into a satisfactory repayment arrangement. If you enter into a satisfactory repayment arrangement, the school may assign the debt to ED for collection or may keep the debt and allow you to make payments directly to them.
Earn approximately $3 to $12 per task for completing simple jobs, such as visiting your local discount store and taking a picture of an assigned product and verifying its price. Download the app on your iOS or Android device, complete your profile and start making money that will be sent to your PayPal or Dwolla account. The app is used by hundreds of small businesses and major companies, such as General Electric, Johnson & Johnson and Walgreens. Free Money In Roblox
This may be the most sound advice any homeowner can hear. Even if you recently refinanced, it might be worth looking into another quote as they take only a few minutes to check. LendingTree could help you refinance your mortgage at a significantly lower interest rate – Let’s say your interest rate decreased by 1%, you can save more than $100 a month on a $200,000 mortgage. That comes out to $1,200 in extra cash for you at the end of the year and $6,000 every 5 years! Federal Grant Budget Standard Form 424a
The categories vary widely and are geared towards a specific need or area of development. Just a sample of categories includes the arts, business and commerce, disaster relief, housing, humanities, science and technology, and education, and individuals or businesses applying for grants will need to identify the category, (or categories), which suit their specific field of need. Federal Grant Money For Small Business
2. If you own a car, you can signup to be an uber.com or lyft.com driver. You can work as much or as little as you want to depend on your availability. You need to pass a background check and make sure that you have a clean vehicle without mechanical issues. You are rated by passengers it pays to be professional & courteous to passengers. You may even be offered a bonus when you signup as a driver! Federal Grant Department Of Health And Human Services
While depression economics has many strange features, the most important one to remember is this: with slack in the economy, it’s possible to have an economic free lunch. If our economy were running at capacity, new government spending, for example, would tend to create inflation because the capacity (workers, raw materials, and equipment) would have to be bid away from someone else, thereby raising prices. But during a depression that doesn’t happen. Instead, new spending brings idle capacity into production. To put that another way, the single-most-important underpinning of a functioning economy is to ensure that there is sufficient aggregate demand. Federal K9 Grants
Watching ads can be annoying, but we do it every day for free – so why not do it for some extra cash? We’re featuring AppTrailers on our roster of free money apps because it lets you do just that! To start earning money, all you have to do is start viewing videos about new apps, which run for 30 seconds or less. Watching these trailers will earn you points, which you can then redeem for gift cards from stores like Amazon, Sephora, Footlocker and iTunes. You can also earn points by uploading your own videos and getting likes! Free Money Manager
This may be the most sound advice any homeowner can hear. Even if you recently refinanced, it might be worth looking into another quote as they take only a few minutes to check. LendingTree could help you refinance your mortgage at a significantly lower interest rate – Let’s say your interest rate decreased by 1%, you can save more than $100 a month on a $200,000 mortgage. That comes out to $1,200 in extra cash for you at the end of the year and $6,000 every 5 years! Federal Grant Budget Standard Form 424a
This is why income inequality is dangerous: it is a drag on aggregate demand. As inequality increases, as it has in the U.S., the drag grows commensurately. Stagnant wages mean that consumer borrowing must be steadily increased to keep the economy moving forward. Meanwhile, the fruits of growth flowing to the top mean a vast pile-up in savings and associated asset bubbles, and the recessions that follow are harder and harder to recover from. In other words, keeping an economy that suffers from galloping economic inequality pressurized and growing requires an economic policy regime that contains the seeds of its own destruction. And this leads us to where we are now: consumers today can’t stomach any more debt, interest rates have hit the floor, and a grinding, low-level depression is upon us. Welcome to 2014. Federal Grant Winners
Essentially, a federal grant is an award of money or economic aid provided by the United States Government out of the funds available in the general federal revenue. The money provided can be a loan, a portion of a certain project or organization's cost, or a complete funding of a particular project, research or other undertaking. Grants are available from both the government as well as outside sources, (including foundations, non-profit charities or non-profit corporations), although the government alone offers nearly 1,000 different grant programs to qualified businesses and individuals, distributed by 26 grant-specific agencies, and divided into 21 separate categories.
The laws governing federal grants are complex, expansive, and often confusing. We’ve been working with recipients of federal funds, including for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, local governments, colleges and universities, research institutions, and various health care and education entities for decades on proper grants management through the entire grants lifecycle. From drafting policies and procedures and establishing compliance, to responding to audit findings, our Federal Grants attorneys are with you every step of the way.

Trim is a nifty free app that helps you analyze your spending and find subscriptions you may have forgotten about. When you find a service you’re no longer using, simply tell Trim to cancel it and they’ll do it for you automatically. They’ll also help you negotiate your cable and internet bills, help you find cheaper car insurance, and more. Heck, it’s practically like finding free money! Free Money Help


No legitimate federal government employee would ever call you and tell you that you qualify or have been approved for a grant for which you never applied. Protect yourself from scammers that tell you that you need to pay a small processing fee to qualify to receive a grant for education costs, home repairs, home business expenses, or "money for nothing" grant offers. Federal Grant Business Loans
Earn cash back for shopping online, submitting a receipt or linking a loyalty account by downloading Ibotta with your iOS or Android device. Before shopping online, head to Ibotta to unlock cash rewards by completing simple tasks. After shopping at a store, simply scan your product barcodes and send a photo of your receipt to have your purchase verified. When using a loyalty card, just remember to scan your card or enter your phone number. Federal Grant Policies And Procedures Manual
The official 2019-2020 college financial aid season began yesterday, October 1st, so it is critical that you file your Free Application for Federal Financial Aid (FAFSA) ASAP! Whether you are headed to college for the first time next fall, or you plan on attending college next year, you will want to complete your FAFSA as soon as possible, as many states and colleges award financial aid on a first come, first served basis. [...] Free Money No Loans
Cash Crate is possibly the most popular survey site in the world. The strength of this program is that they are open to residents of all countries. They consistently pay out fast every month. Especially great for people from the USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, India, South Africa, and even other countries that most other survey sites don't allow. They also have games where you can win points and exchange them for great prizes. You also get $1 dollar for free when you join!

You already search the web and watch videos every day, so why not get paid for it? Swagbucks is here to help make that happen! Swagbucks lets you earn points for shopping online, watching entertaining videos, surfing the web, and answering surveys. You can then redeem those points for free gift cards from stores like Walmart and Amazon. Or if you prefer cold, hard cash, you can get cash back from PayPal! As of this article, Swagbucks has doled out about $290 million to users. And if you sign up now, they’ll even give you a $10 bonus! Def one of the coolest free money apps out there. Federal Grant Budget Categories
You’ll have to propose specific, measurable, results that you plan to achieve. Vague promises are not enough and will significantly dull your competitive edge. Stating that your organization’s project will “help children succeed,” “improve the quality of life,” “reduce hunger,” or “improve reading skills,” is not good enough. To get a big federal grant you’ll have to go much farther. Federal agencies want to know how many people will change, in what way, to what degree, within what time frame, and as measured by what? Start considering what changes you can realistically expect to achieve through your organization’s work. Free Money Reading
Alliance Wealth Management, LLC (“Alliance”) is a registered investment adviser offering advisory services in the State(s) of Illinois and in other jurisdictions where exempted. Registration does not imply a certain level of skill or training. The presence of this website on the Internet shall not be directly or indirectly interpreted as a solicitation of investment advisory services to persons of another jurisdiction unless otherwise permitted by statute. Follow-up or individualized responses to consumers in a particular state by Alliance in the rendering of personalized investment advice for compensation shall not be made without our first complying with jurisdiction requirements or pursuant an applicable state exemption. Free Money Surveys
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